Here is a list of some of the resources I have found useful on the topics of citizen diplomacy or eDiplomacy.


Beth Noveck
This TED talk is about how the open-data revolution might be brought into government. Beth Noveck founded the White House Open Government Initiative, which focused on developing policies of transparency, participation, and collaboration in the US administration.

Clay Shirky
This talk is about how we should try and take charge of law making and other government stuff, and use opensource github inspired systems. Clay Shirky, professor at NYU  is an incredibly authoritative voice on technology’s influence on society. In this talk he said: ” It did not take long after the rise of the commercial printing press before someone figured out that erotic novels were a good idea. … It took people another 150 years to even think of the scientific journal.”

Carnegie Endowment for International Peace,
This video is a general video about digital diplomacy

Jennifer Pahlka 
Jennifer Pahlka is an expert in and of gaming and what you can call a code “activist”, in this video she speaks about her project “code for America” that tries to make apps that create solutions for human problems. Read more about Code for America.

Steven Johnson video by author Steven Johnson, that writes and speaks about the intersection of science, technology and personal experience. It is centered around the idea of open source based systems.



Gilboa, Eytan, “Searching for a theory of public diplomacy,” The ANNALS of the American Academy of Political and Social Science 616(1), March 2008.
About “The new public diplomacy”. Gilboa writes about what it would take to create a comprehensive theory about Public Diplomacy, while situating Public Diplomacy in other theoretical debates including the “Soft Power” debate.

Jesse Lichtenstein, “Digital Diplomacy,” The New York Times, July 16, 2010. Accessed October 3, 2012.
This NYTimes article is a very thorough and interesting look into the minds of Jared Cohen and Alec Ross, two State Department people that work on getting the US government  to do digital diplomacy. Alec Ross is known for his insights into innovations in technology and government.

Kassam, Alnaaz,”Bridging the Digital Divide: Intercultural understanding and global activism across continents.” Accessed October 8, 2012.
Case study of the classrooms across continents initiative. Classrooms across continents is an initiative that connects a classroom in one country with a classroom in another, and the students work together on the same topic. They keep in touch online and cooperate where possible while studying the topics and offer insights from their different experiences.

Marshall, James, “International Affairs: Citizen Diplomacy,” The American Political Science Review 43(1), February 1949
An old article promoting citizen diplomacy as a viable path for peace. It presents some early attempts by the US government to implement citizen diplomacy by participation of civil society organizations in international negotiations.

Nye Jr., Joseph S., “Public Diplomacy and Soft Power,” The Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science 616(1), March 2008.
Nye, the father of the Soft Power concept, here ponders the effect of “the global information age” on power as displayed through public diplomacy. The argument, as always for Nye: more smart power (hard + soft power).

Raymond, Duane, “A New Tool for an Old Art” Fair Say. Accessed October 8, 2012.
About eCampaining, from a civil society viewpoint. The article discusses how NGOs and other campaigners can benefit from the use of social media and the internet in general. While arguing that “web 2.0” is indeed useful, it also warns that taking full advantage of the developments will require organizations to rethink and reinvent themselves.

Raymond, Duane, “What’s happening in campaigning and the Internet,” Fair Say. Accessed October 8, 2012.
This article is about eCampaining, from a civil society viewpoint. The article discusses campaigning strategy using social media to its fullest potential.

Srinivasan, Ramesh, “Civil Society 2.0 and eDiplomacy – Can it work?“, November 21, 2010. Accessed October 8, 2012.
A skeptic view of the idea of eDiplomacy revolutionizing the world. He presents the views of different cyber-optimists and skeptics. Ramesh argues that there are indeed unanticipated effects of what he calls “Civil Society 2.0”, and from an American viewpoint, anti-american views can be promoted. He still believes that there is potential for positive developments, but there needs to be more research in the field.

Westcott, Nicholas, “Digital Diplomacy: The Impact of the Internet on International Relations,” OII Working Paper No. 16. July 1, 2008. Accessed October 8, 2012.
This working paper is about how the conditions of the internet has changed diplomacy, from a government perspective. Westcott argues that the internet is indeed changing international relations, just as earlier technological developments have affected society. He highlights that the internet multiplies and amplifies the number of voices and interests involved in policy making, complicating and reducing the control of states.

Wilson, Ernest J. (2008). Hard power, Soft power, Smart power. The Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science, vol. 616(1)
This article promotes the concept of smart power while arguing why the concepts “hard power” and “soft power” are flawed and inadequate as theoretical concepts. Like many smart power arguments, it does have a political undertone.

Zhang, Juyan & Swartz, Brecken Chinn, “Toward a model of NGO media diplomacy in the Internet age: Case study of Washington Profile,” Public Relations Review 35(1), March 2009.
This case study of the effects of the internet is unfortunately not available online (ironically) except through library access. It is a qualitative study of the non profit “Washington Profile”, that is based on interviews with the organization’s staff.

The Economist, “Virtual Relations: Foreign ministries are getting the hang of social media,” September 22, 2012. Accessed October 8, 2012.
More from the perspective of the states, and about twiplomacy. It argues that much of the diplomatic activity that is going on online is in fact public diplomacy. It primarily looks at the developments from an American viewpoint, noting that the US. State Department is leading in eDiplomacy.

The Economist, “A World Wide Web of Terror,” July 12, 2007. Accessed October 8, 2012.
In depth article about how Al-Qaeda utilizes the internet, one of the negative results of the digital revolution. It documents the fascinating hunt for the most successful online terrorists by western inteligence agencies.

Zalman, Amy, “How Power Really Works in the 21st Century: Beyond Soft, Hard & Smart,” The Globalist, July 17, 2012. Accessed October 8, 2012.
A critique of the Soft Power concept. Zalman argues that we should move back to the terminology before Joseph Nye’s popular Soft Power concept, and call power what it is: namely “power”. She thinks the soft/hard power dichotomy is misleading because it might lead people to forget that soft power (like NGO’s or diplomacy) can in fact yield hard results, such as to national security, and the other way around.

Yadron, Danny, “Social Media’s Delicate Role in Diplomacy,” The Wall Street Journal, September 12, 2012. Accessed October 8, 2012.
How government diplomats use social media, in particular about how the American Embassy in Cairo has a rather blunt way of communicating with the public on twitter.



Agha, Hussein et al., ” Track-II diplomacy : lessons from the Middle East” The MIT Press. (2003)
A book co-authored by Israelis and Palestinians practicians of track two diplomacy. It evaluated the track two peace process in the Middle East in the 80s and 90s. They use case studies and personal accounts to examine track two diplomacy and its utility in the Middle East.

Betsill, Michele & Corell, Elisabeth et al., “NGO Diplomacy – The influence of nongovernmental organizations in international environmental negotiations,” Massachusetts Institute of Technology (2008).
This book argues that NGOs have an increased influence on international relations and that states are loosing their control over international matters. In particular, it argues that NGO’s can play an important role in diplomacy. The authors conduct multiple case studies.

Carlsnaes, Walter et al. (ed.), “Handbook of International relations,” SAGE Publications Ltd. (2002)
Extensive handbook on the mainstream theories, concepts and issues in International Relations. I use it for definitions, where it is good at representing different viewpoints and debates.

Copeland, Daryl, “Guerilla Diplomacy – Rethinking International Relations,” Lynne Rienner Publishers, Inc. (2009)
To be honest, I picked this book up because of it’s title, and it doesn’t disappoint; all the chapters have similarly captivating titles, like “Cold War Comfort”, “Lessons Unlearned” and “The March of History”! I haven’t read much yet though, but I have understood that Copeland argues for the reform of diplomacy.

Jonah Onuoha, “Beyond Diplomacy: Contemporary Issues in International Relations,” Nsukka: AP Express Publishers (2008)

Kaufman, Edy, Walid Salem and Juliette Verhoeven, “Bridging the Divide- Peacebuilding in the Israeli-Palestinitan Conflict,” Lynne Rienner Publishers, Inc (2006).
The book writes about the peace movements in Israel and Palestine and how civil society in both camps work toward reconciliation using track-II diplomacy as one of their tools.

Kaye, Dalia Dassa, “Talking to the Enemy – Track Two Diplomacy in the Middle East and South Asia” Rand Corporation (2007)
through case studies in the Middle East and South Asia, Kaye examines the role of Track-II diplomacy in conflict resolution, highlighting both the advantages, possibilities and limitations of Track-II diplomacy. It is quite practice oriented.

Melissen, Jan (ed.), “The New Public Diplomacy” Palgrave (2005)
I have returned to this book several times in my studies. This book covers a lot of ground with a focus on the practical aspects of public diplomacy as well as some theoretical considerations. It includes case studies of the EU, China, Canada and Norway as Public Diplomacy agents.

Nye, Joseph. (2004). Soft Power – The Means To Success In World Politics. New York: Public Affairs.
The book on soft power, and a very good read. This book has later been criticized extensively, and it is helpful to keep in mind that the term Soft power is not neutral, and can be used politically.

Pigman, Geoffrey Allen “Contemporary Diplomacy – Representation and Communication in a globalized World” Polity Press(2010)
An interesting handbook-like thing with a much larger emphasis on non-state actors than you normally find. A chapter about Public Diplomacy and mention of interesting new combinations, such as companies and multilateral organizations doing diplomacy.

Ross, Carne, “The Independent Diplomat – Dispatches from an Unaccountable Elite,” Cornell University Press (2007)

Ross, Carne, “The Leaderless Revolution – How Ordinary People Will Take Power and Change Politics in the Twenti-First Century,” Blue Rider Press (2011)
Two books right on topic, by the Excecutive Director of the Non-profit Organization The Independent Diplomat. Read my book review post of “The Leaderless Revolution” here, and my case study of the Independent Diplomat here.

Saunders, Harold, “When Citizens Talk: Nonofficial Dialogue in Relations Between Nations,” in John W. McDonald, Jr. and Diane B. Bendahmane, eds., Conflict Resolution: Track Two Diplomacy, Washington D.C., Foreign Service Institute, 1987, pp. 81-87.
Saunders writes about the relevance of citizen diplomacy to conflict resolution, in particular about track-II diplomacy.

Williams, Jody and Stephen D. Goose, “Citizen Diplomacy and the Ottawa Process: A Lasting Model?” in Jody Williams, Stephen D. Goose and Mary Wareham, eds., Banning Landmines, USA, Rowman & Littlefield publishers, Inc. 2008, pp. 181-199.
A book about the process towards the international ban on the use of landmines and what role citizen diplomacy played therein. Foreword by Desmond Tutu.

Seib, Phillip, “Toward a New Public Diplomacy,” Palgrave Macmillan (2009)
Seib argues for policy makers to increasingly use the tools of public diplomacy and soft power in general.

Stevensen, Angus et al “The New Oxford American Dictionary,” Third Edition, Oxford University Press.

Wilkins, Karin Gwinn, “Redeveloping Communication for Social Change – Theory, Practice, and Power” Rowman and Littlefield (2000).
Wilkins’ book is about how communication and technological developments have affected and been used by peace movements and development initiatives.